written by Daniel in frontend on Wed Apr 29 2020

Content Security Policy, inline scripts and Next.js

TL;DR Use CSP with nonce & strict-dynamic to secure the origin of inline scripts.

Updated 2021-02-17 for Helmet v4

Next includes client-side scripts in <script> tags in Document, so usually, a script-src 'self'; would be sufficient. However, I also needed to execute inline scripts, which meant that I either had to use unsafe-inline (which is only marginally better than no CSP), a hash of the scripts' content, or a nonce. I went with nonce, and even though it turned out to be pretty straightforward in the end, it still ended up eating most of my afternoon today.

Setting up security headers

I used helmet, an express middleware that makes setting security headers easier. The types make it convenient to see all the configuration options.

$ yarn add helmet
$ yarn add -D @types/helmet

Setting up CSP with nonce

The idea is to generate a random nonce on every request, send it to the browser in the CSP header and make sure all scripts have a matching value: <script nonce={nonce}>. See MDN for all possible CSP options.

'strict-dynamic' tells the browser to trust any other code executed by already trusted code. If you specify 'strict-dynamic', the browser will disregard other options such as 'self' *.3rdparty.com. Every script will then need to have the nonce.

import express from 'express'
import helmet from 'helmet'
import { v4 } from 'uuid'

const server = express()

const options = {
  directives: {
    'default-src': ["'self'"],
    'script-src': [(req, res) => `'nonce-${res.locals.nonce}' 'strict-dynamic'`],
  // ... more config options

// generate a nonce on every request and save it
server.use((req, res, next) => {
  res.locals.nonce = v4()
  helmet.contentSecurityPolicy(options)(req, res, next)

We will need to pass the nonce to Next as well as any other scripts. Let's create a custom Document in pages/_document.tsx, retrieve the nonce from context and pass it down:

import Document, {
} from 'next/document'
import React from 'react'
import { ServerResponse } from 'http'

type ResponseWithNonce = ServerResponse & { locals: { nonce?: string } }

type CustomDocumentProps = {
  nonce?: string

class CustomDocument extends Document<CustomDocumentProps> {
  static async getInitialProps(ctx: DocumentContext) {
    // get the nonce from res.locals.nonce
    const nonce = (ctx.res as ResponseWithNonce).locals.nonce
    const initialProps = await Document.getInitialProps(ctx)
    return { ...initialProps, nonce }

  render() {
    return (
        {/* pass it to Next Head */}
        <Head nonce={this.props.nonce} />
          <Main />
          {/* pass it to Next scripts */}
          <NextScript nonce={this.props.nonce} />

          {/* as well as any other scripts */}

export default CustomDocument

Easier option

If you don't need to execute inline scripts, you don't need this nonce stuff. It will suffice to specify trusted origins: script-src 'self' *.3rdparty.com;.